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Oracle Real Application Clusters 11g Release 2 and Grid Infrastructure Administration

Question No: 21

You want to reorganize the DATA diskgroup while continuing database operations. The DATA diskgroup was created using normal redundancy having one disk per failure group. The two disks used are /dev/sdal and /dev/sda2.

You plan to drop the existing disks and add the /dev/sdb1 and /dev/sdb2 disks to failure group FG_C and the /dev/sdcl and /dev/sdc2 disks to failure group FG_D.

Which procedure would you use to minimize the effect of the I/Os of this reorganization on ongoing database operations?

A.

Set rebalance power to 0 for diskgroup DATA. Add failure group FG_C with all the /dev/sdb disks. Add failure group FG_D with all the /dev/sdc disks. Drop disks/dev/sda1 and /dev/sda2.

Set rebalance power to 1 for diskgroup DATA.

B.

Set rebalance power to 0 for diskgroup DATA. Add failure group FG_C with all the /dev/sdb disks. Add failure group FG_D with all the /dev/sdb disks. Drop disks/dev/sda1 and /dev/sda2.

Set rebalance power to 9 for diskgroup DATA.

C.

Set rebalance power to 9 for diskgroup DATA. Add failure group FG_C with all the /dev/sdb disks. Add failure group FG_D with all the /dev/sdc disks.

Drop disks /dev/sda1 and /dev/sda2.

Set rebalance power to 0 for diskgroup DATA.

D.

Set rebalance power to 0 for diskgroup DATA Drop disks /dev/sdal and /dev/sdb disks.

Add failure group FG_C with all the /dev/sdb disks. Add failure group FG_D with all the /dev/sdc disks Set rebalance power to 1 for diskgroup DATA.

Answer: A Explanation:

->To control the speed and resource consumption of the rebalance operation, you

can include the REBALANCE POWER clause in statements that add, drop, or resize disks.

->The ASM_POWER_LIMIT initialization parameter specifies the default power for

disk rebalancing in a disk group. The range of values is 0 to 1024. The default value is 1. A value of 0 disables rebalancing. Higher numeric values enable the rebalancing operation to complete more quickly, but might result in higher I/O overhead and more rebalancing processes.

->Failure groups are used to place mirrored copies of data so that each copy is on a

disk in a different failure group. The simultaneous failure of all disks in a failure group does not result in data loss.

->You define the failure groups for a disk group when you create an Oracle ASM

disk group. After a disk group is created, you cannot alter the redundancy level of the disk group. If you omit the failure group specification, then Oracle ASM automatically places each disk into its own failure group, except for disk groups containing disks on Oracle Exadata cells. Normal redundancy disk groups require at least two failure groups. High redundancy disk groups require at least three failure groups. Disk groups with external redundancy do not use failure groups.

Oracle庐 Automatic Storage Management

Question No: 22

You are allocating space from the ASM disk group for an ADVM volume. What will be the volume extent and Volume Allocation Unit (VAU) if the stripe column is 4 and AU is 1 MB? Which are the default values?

  1. The volume extent is 64 MB and the VAU will be 512 MB.

  2. The volume extent is 64 MB and the VAU will be 256 MB.

  3. The volume extent is 32 MB and the VAU will be 256 MB.

  4. It is not possible to calculate these values with the given information.

Answer: B

Explanation: Stripe column and stripe width are two important attributes that can

be specified for a volume determining how space is allocated for a volume and how space is allocated within a volume after ACFS or third party file system is created on a volume and a file is created or extended on the file system built on that volume. Both attributes are specified at volume creation time and cannot be changed later. If there is no value a default value is used.

->Stripe column – specifies the number of stripes a value from 1 to 8. The default is

4.

->Stripe width – specifies the size of the stripe can vary from 4K,8K, 16K,32K,64K,128K, 256K, 512K, 1M. Default is 128K.

Volume Allocation Unit (VAU) is the smallest allocation for a volume. Whenever a volume is created or extended space is allocated in multiple of VAU. VAU size is determined by the Volume Extent (VE) and the stripe column. VAU is the product of VE and the stripe column. Volume Extent is based on the Allocation Unit (AU) specified on a disk group and for AU with size of 1MB the VE is 64MB. Whenever a VAU is allocated VE are allocated in a round robin fashion across the disks in a disk group. Volume size is always multiple of the VAU. For example if a volume is requested with size 200MB and stripe column is 4 and AU is 1MB one VAU with size 256MB will be allocated and the volume size will be 256MB

Question No: 23

Your cluster Is subject to a service-level agreement that allows for little scheduled down time You want to use patching and maintenance methods that permit the Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAT Databases to be available as much as possible.

Which two techniques will work some or all of the time to provide you with minimum down time?

  1. rolling upgradeable and in place patch sets

  2. idling upgradeable and out of place patch bundles

  3. rolling upgradeable and out of place patch sets

  4. rolling upgradeable and in place patch bundles

  5. rolling upgradeable and out of place one-off patches

Answer: C,D Explanation:

->A rolling upgrade process allows one or more nodes in the cluster to have a

different software version than the other nodes in the cluster for a short period of time. During the time period where cluster nodes have different software versions, the cluster is fully functional, but some administrative functions are disabled until

the upgrade has completed, for example, adding new cluster resources.

->An out-of-place patch set installation with cloning has the following advantages: Applications remain available while software is upgraded in the new ORACLE_HOME. The configuration inside the ORACLE_HOME is retained because the cloning procedure involves physically copying the software

->In-place upgrade – You install the patch set into an existing Oracle home location.

Oracle recommends that you select this option only if you do not have sufficient free disk space to perform an out-of-place upgrade, as the upgrade removes the existing Oracle installation. This patch option requires less disk space, but requires more time, and is riskier, because if you encounter an installation failure, then you must recover the entire existing Oracle home from a backup

Question No: 24

Which four statements are true about services and connection load balancing?

  1. Services provide the ability to balance client connections across the instances in an Oracle RAC configuration.

  2. There are two types of load balancing that you can implement; load balancing decisions can be made by the client and by the listener.

  3. In a RAC database environment, you should select only one load balancing method.

  4. With server-side load balancing, the listener directs a connection request to the best instance that is currently providing the service based on the load-balancing options selected by the DBA.

  5. Client-side load balancing balances the connection requests across the listeners.

Answer: A,B,D,E Explanation:

Services and Connection Load Balancing

The two load balancing methods that you can implement are:

  • Client-side load balancing: Balances the connection requests across the listeners

  • Server-side load balancing: The listener directs a connection request to the best instance currently providing the service by using the load balancing advisory (LBA).

    FAN, Fast Connection Failover, and LBA depend on a connection load balancing configuration that includes setting the connection load balancing goal for the service. The load balancing goal for the service can be either:

  • LONG: For applications having long-lived connections. This is typical for connection pools and SQL*Forms sessions.

  • SHORT: For applications that have short-lived connection

Oracle Net Services provides the ability to balance client connections across the instances in an Oracle RAC configuration. You can implement two types of load balancing: client-side and server-side.

Client-side load balancing balances the connection requests across the listeners. With server-side load balancing, the listener directs a connection request to the best instance currently providing the service by using the load balancing advisory.

In a RAC database, client connections should use both types of connection load balancing.

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Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 15 – 12

Question No: 25

The high availability services provided by Oracle Clusterware are used to protect Oracle resources, such as RAC database instances, RAC database services, and other components of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and non-Oracle resources as well.

Which two statements are true about the high availability capabilities of Oracle HA services?

  1. RAC databases may have their instances failed over in some cases.

  2. ASM instances may be failed over if fewer than three nodes remain in the cluster, so that there are always at least three ASM instances available.

  3. If a node fails, then all resources that were active on that node will be failed over to a surviving node if any exists.

  4. If a node fails, then cluster resources that were active on that node may be failed over to a surviving node if any exists, but local resources are not failed over.

  5. HA services will only fail over a resource upon failure of the node where the resource was active.

Answer: D,E Explanation: Resource Types

Local resource: These are server-centric resources; the type name is local_resource. These run locally on individual servers of the cluster and are not relevant outside of the scope of the server.

Cluster resource: Cluster-aware resource types (type name is cluster_resource) are aware of the cluster environment and are subject to cardinality and cross-server switchover and

failover. The state of cluster resources is relevant in the context of the cluster.

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Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration

Question No: 26

I he ASM instance in your environment can support databases from version 10.2.0.4 through 11.2.0.1 You want to use all ASM functionality possible for each database, including OCR and voting files In the ASM. What is the proper setting for the ASM diskgroup attribute on diskgroups being used by all the instances?

  1. Set compatible.asm to 11.2 and compatible.rdbms to 10.2

  2. Set compatible.asm to 10.2 and compatible.rdbms to 10.2

  3. Set compatible.asm to 11.2 and compatible.rdbms to 11.2

  4. Set compatible.asm to 10.2 and compatible.rdbms to 11.2

Answer: A

Explanation: Disk Group Compatibility Attributes COMPATIBLE.ASM

The value for the disk group COMPATIBLE.ASM attribute determines the minimum software version for an Oracle ASM instance that can use the disk group. This setting also affects the format of the data structures for the Oracle ASM metadata on the disk. The format of other file contents is determined by Oracle ASM Dynamic

Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM) and the database instance.

For Oracle ASM in Oracle Database 11g, 10.1 is the default setting for the COMPATIBLE.ASM attribute when using the SQL CREATE DISKGROUP statement, the ASMCMD mkdg command, and Oracle Enterprise Manager Create Disk Group page.

When creating a disk group with ASMCA, the default setting is 11.2.

COMPATIBLE.RDBMS

The value for the disk group COMPATIBLE.RDBMS attribute determines the minimum COMPATIBLE database initialization parameter setting for any database instance that is allowed to use the disk group. Before advancing the COMPATIBLE.RDBMS attribute, ensure that the values for the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter for all of the databases that access the disk group are set to at least the value of the new setting for

COMPATIBLE.RDBMS.

For example, if the COMPATIBLE initialization parameters of the databases are set to either 11.1 or 11.2, then COMPATIBLE.RDBMS can be set to any value between 10.1 and

11.1 inclusively.

Oracle庐 Automatic Storage Management Administrator#39;s Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2)

Question No: 27

Assuming a RAC database called ORCL, select three statements that correctly demonstrate management actions for the AP service.

  1. To start the AP service, execute: srvctl start service -d ORCL -s AP

  2. To disable the AP service on the ORCL4 instance, execute: srvctl disable service -d ORCL -s AP -i ORCL4

  3. To stop the AP service, execute: srvctl stop service -s AP

  4. To make ORCL5 a preferred instance for the AP service, execute: srvctl set service -d ORCL -s AP -i ORCL5 -r

  5. To relocate the AP service from the ORCL5 instance to the ORCL4 instance, execute: srvctl relocate service -d ORCL -s AP -i ORCL5 -t ORCL4

Answer: A,B,E Explanation:

SRVCTL Command Reference

srvctl start service -d db_unique_name

[-s quot;service_name_listquot; [-n node_name | -i instance_name]] [-o start_options]

srvctl disable service -d db_unique_name

-s quot;service_name_listquot; [-i instance_name | -n node_name] srvctl stop service -d db_unique_name [-s quot;service_name_listquot; [-n node_name | -i instance_name] [-f]

srvctl relocate service -d db_unique_name -s service_name

{-c source_node -n target_node | -i old_instance_name -t new_instance_name} [-f]

Oracle庐 Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2)

Question No: 28

orcl1, orcl2, and orcl3 are tnsnames that connect to predefined instances of a three- instance RAC database which uses ASM for shared storage.

The database is in archivelog mode.

Examine the Exhibit for the tnsnames.ora entries for orcl1, orcl2, and orcl3.

Ensurepass 2018 PDF and VCE

You plan to execute the following RMAN commands to back up the database: RUN{

ALLOCATE CHANNEL CH1 DEVICE TYPE DISK CONNECT #39;user1/pwd1@orcl1#39;; ALLOCATE CHANNEL CH2 DEVICE TYPE DISK CONNECT #39;user2/pwd2@orcl2#39;; ALLOCATE CHANNEL CH3 DEVICE TYPE DISK CONNECT #39;user3/pwd3@orcl3#39;; BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG; }

What should be the database mode on each of the three instances for this backup to succeed?

  1. The database can be either mounted or open on all three instances.

  2. The database must be open on all three instances.

  3. The database must be open on any one instance and mounted on the other two instances.

  4. The database must be mounted on any one of the instances and the other instances will be mounted automatically.

Answer: A Explanation: connectStringSpec Purpose

Use the connectStringSpec subclause to specify the user name, password, and net service name for connecting to a target, recovery catalog, or auxiliary database. The connection is necessary to authenticate the user and identify the database.

Prerequisites

You must have SYSDBA privileges to CONNECT to a target or auxiliary database. Do not connect to the recovery catalog database as user SYS.

Usage Notes

RMAN connections to a database are specified and authenticated in the same way as SQL*Plus connections to a database. The only difference is that RMAN connections to a target or auxiliary database require the SYSDBA privilege. The AS SYSDBA keywords are implied and cannot be explicitly specified. See Oracle

Database Administrator#39;s Guide to learn about database connection options when using SQL*Plus.

Oracle庐 Database Backup and Recovery Reference 11g Release 2 (11.2)

Question No: 29

You are managing a three-Instance RAC database. In the AWR report, you notice a gc current block busy wait event on one of the database Instances, in the cluster top timed events section.

What are two possible reasons for this wait event?

  1. Access to blocks was delayed as the blocks were pinned In exclusive mode for updates by some sessions.

  2. Access to blocks was delayed by log writes on remote Instance.

  3. Frequently used select statements are causing high disk Input/output contention.

  4. CPU shortages.

Answer: A,B Explanation:

Analyzing Performance Using GCS and GES Statistics

The gc current block busy wait event indicates that the access to cached data blocks was delayed because they were busy either in the remote or the local cache. This could be caused by any of the following:

The blocks were pinned

The blocks were held up by sessions

The blocks were delayed by a log write on a remote instance

A session on the same instance was already accessing a block which was in transition between instances and the current session needed to wait behind it (for example, gc current block busy)

Contention-Related Wait Events

The main wait events for contention-related waits are:

gc current block busy gc cr block busy

gc buffer busy acquire/release

The contention-related wait event statistics indicate that a block was received which was pinned by a session on another node, was deferred because a change had not yet been flushed to disk or because of high concurrency, and therefore could not be shipped immediately. A buffer may also be busy locally when a session has already initiated a cache fusion operation and is waiting for its completion when another session on the same node is trying to read or modify the same data. High service times for blocks exchanged in the global cache may exacerbate the contention, which can be caused by frequent

concurrent read and write accesses to the same data.

The gc current block busy and gc cr block busy wait events indicate that the local instance that is making the request did not immediately receive a current or consistent read block. The term busy in these events#39; names indicates that the sending of the block was delayed on a remote instance. For example, a block cannot be shipped immediately if Oracle Database has not yet written the redo for the block#39;s changes to a log file.

Oracle庐 Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2)

Question No: 30

You want to install a database patch on your eight-node cluster by using Opatch with, the minimum amount of down time to your cluster nodes.

You have already been prompted for the first set of nodes and you replied with node names RACNODE1 RACNODE2, and RACNODE3.

Which two statements are true about the procedure for minimizing down time?

  1. The patch must be propagated to, applied, and the inventory updated on all the remaining nodes before restarting the instances on the first set of nodes.

  2. When the first set of nodes has been patched, the instances on the remaining nodes are shut down automatically by opatch.

  3. The instances must be started on the first set of nodes and then stopped on the remaining set to make certain that some nodes are always available.

  4. When the first set of nodes has been patched, the administrator is prompted to shut down the instances on the remaining nodes.

  5. The patch must be propagated to and the inventory updated on all the remaining nodes before restarting the instances on the first set of nodes.

Answer: D,E Explanation:

Installing a Patch with Minimum Down Time with OPatch

In minimum down-time patching, the nodes are divided into two sets. One set of nodes is shut down and the patch is applied to those nodes. After the first set of nodes has been patched, the second set of nodes is shut down. The first set of nodes is then restarted and

the patch is applied to the second set of nodes. After the patch has been applied to the second set of nodes, those nodes are restarted. This method leads to less down time for Oracle RAC, compared to having all the nodes shut down at the same time. When you use the minimum down-time patching method, the following actions occur:

The local node is always patched first.

The local node is used as a base to patch the other nodes. The user is prompted for the first set of nodes to patch.

For each node in this first set, the user is asked to stop the instance and then the patch is propagated and applied to that node before continuing to the next node.

When the first set of nodes has been patched, the user is asked to shut down Clusterware on the remaining nodes.

The instances are stopped on the last set of remote nodes.

The patch is propagated to the last set of nodes and the inventory is updated.

You can then start up the patched nodes (the first set of nodes) before patching the remaining nodes.

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Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 4 – 44

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